Cryogenic Nanopore NMR Analyzer

NMRC12 series is a NMR-based nano-pore analyzer used to study the pore structure and distribution of porous materials. The determination of pore distribution can be measured and calculated by applying the relationship between the pore size and the freezing point of pore fluid. This NMR technique could be used to monitor the phase transition in pore fluid in real time and the detection range of pore size falls in 2 to 500 nm if appropriate fluid samples are chosen.

Application Indexes

Temperature range: – 30 0C~ 40 0C/ – 50 0C~ 40 0C (accuracy: ± 0.01 0C);

Cooling rate:10C / min;

Sample volume: 0.5 cm3 ~ 1 cm3;

Pore size: 2 nm ~ 500 nm.

Static fluid in pores improves the accuracy and resolution during the measuring course of cryogenic NMR method;

The modular gas supply system provides a stable and dry air flow as the media, which reduces signal minimum and can work for a long period of time;

Ultra-low temperature thermostat system at – 60 0C gurantees a stable cooling source which can cool down the air flow quickly and stablize it;

Two-stage heating resistors heat the sample chamber rapidly and control the temperature precisely;

NMR analyzer system with mature technology and full NMR capabilities: stable magnetic field, short dead time, and high SNR;

Probe designed for low temperature isolates the heat exchanges between sample chamber and the magnet effectively;

The powerful software with friendly user interface offers a fully automated solution including calculation, temperature setting, sampling, and data process plus figure exporting.

EDUVMR NMR & MRI Analyzer

The EDUMR virtual data acquisition and image reconstruction teaching software is a low-field magnetic resonance analyzing and imaging simulation system combining NMR and MRI system all in one. By using this virtual NMR analyzer signal acquisition and image processing software, we can easily build up a teaching platform, and the realistic teaching of NMR principles and techniques become much more achievable. The virtual magnetic resonance imaging system can simulate the entire process. With the parameter driven interface users can select imaging sequence, the original level and imaging technology, carry out the relevant data collection process and perform K space filling of reconstructed images. The use of virtual systems allows many students to learn simultaneously without the need to invest in expensive hardware or several supervisors to train users.

Advantages

EDUVMR

Perform virtual sequence selection, parameter adjustment, data acquisition, K space filling, image reconstruction function; The influence of magnetic field in homogeneity and electronic noise can be simulated; Minimal investment in hardware is an advantage; Perform fat suppression imaging; Perform water suppression imaging; Perform Bounce-point Imaging; Perform Half-Fourier scanning &Imaging; Overcomes the problem of long time of acquisition through inadequate instrumentation; More than four pulse sequences (SE sequence), FSE sequence, IR sequence, GRE sequence) can be used for virtual imaging data collection; Observe how the scan parameters affect the image; Minimize the impact of gradient eddy current, analog acquisition in severe T2-weighted images; Adjust the data acquisition to a normal speed and a very-fast speed.

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Small Animal MRI

Atlas of Small Animals MRI is a highly illustrated guide to the common clinical disorders of dogs and cats that are now routinely diagnosed using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This invaluable new resource features a wealth of high-quality CT and MRI images and includes relevant radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic, and gross pathology images, offering a unique approach emphasizing comparative imaging and pathologic correlation.

The book is organized by anatomical region with subsections focusing on specific anatomical sites or disorders—from the head, neck, brain and spine to the thorax, abdomen, and musculoskeletal system. The accompanying text emphasizes important imaging features focusing on what is important to the diagnosis of disease. Where helpful to the imaging diagnosis, information related to disease etiopathology, non-imaging diagnostic procedures, and treatment is also included.

Essential for specialists in training and qualified specialists in the fields of small animal veterinary diagnostic imaging, internal medicine, and surgery. Also of interest to those in general veterinary practice who commonly refer patients for CT and MRI examinations.

Atlas of Small Animal CT & MRI is a highly illustrated diagnostic imaging guide to common clinical disorders of dogs and cats.

Contains over 3,000 high quality CT, MRI and related diagnostic images
Offers a unique approach emphasizing comparative imaging and pathologic correlation
Focuses on important imaging features relevant to imaging diagnosis of disease in dogs and cats
Written by internationally renowned experts in the field

Practical Small Animal MRI

Practical Small Animal MRI is the seminal reference for clinicians using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of veterinary patients. Although MRI is used most frequently in the diagnosis of neurologic disorders, it also has significant application to other body systems. This book covers normal anatomy and specific clinical conditions of the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, abdomen, thorax, and head and neck. It also contains several chapters on disease of the brain and spine, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, and vascular diseases, alongside congenital and degenerative disorders.

The two authors, a radiologist and a neurologist, supported by two other contributors, each have over 20 years’ experience in MRI, and this is borne out by the huge amount of information and images presented.

A fascinating insight into the field; the text is well-written and extremely detailed…. invaluable as an introduction to principles of the physics of MRI and the challenges of producing diagnostic images without artifacts, and as a reference for use in clinical situations.

The extensive experience of the authors combined with a comprehensive review of the literature published on small animals MRI imaging make this the most comprehensive text on this subject…. the image quality is excellent.

I purchased the book for my boyfriend as a gift. He’s an MRI tech/Vet tech for a veterinary neurology practice. He really enjoys the book and says that it is exactly what he needed. He thinks the content is well written and has helped him with MRI scanning. His only complaint is that in three months the book is falling apart. This isn’t a book that gets throw around or misused. Half of the neurology chapter has fallen out of the book along with some other pages. Considering the cost of the book this is very surprising. At this rate this book may not last a year. Not sure if it’s just his copy or if others have had the same experience. Unfortunately, because of this experience I can not recommend getting the hardcover version of this book.

Why do I need to have gadolinium contrast medium?

Gadolinium MRI contrast agent is used in about 1 in 3 of MRI scans to improve the clarity of the images or pictures of your body’s internal structures. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of the MRI scan. For example, it improves the visibility of inflammation, tumours, blood vessels and, for some organs, blood supply.

Before the scan begins, the radiologist (specialist doctor supervising the scan) will decide, on the basis of the notes sent by your referring doctor, whether gadolinium injection is likely to be helpful and should be recommended for your MRI.

Before any MRI scan, you will be asked a number of questions about your medical history, and any implants you might have, to make sure that you will not be at risk from the strong magnetic fields of the scanner. You will also be asked about conditions that might mean a gadolinium injection would not be recommended (e.g. pregnancy, previous allergic reaction, severe kidney disease). If you have any of these conditions, then you will not be given gadolinium, but if there is no condition preventing injection, you might be asked to sign a consent form in case gadolinium is required.

Usually, you will be advised by the technologist or nurse before you have the MRI scan that it is recommended that gadolinium contrast medium be injected during the examination. As with any medical procedure, you have the right to seek further advice and/or to decline a gadolinium injection. The technologist who carries out the MRI scan, a nurse or a radiologist will give you the injection.

Sometimes, even though gadolinium initially would not have been required based on the referral notes provided by your doctor, the radiologist might decide during your scan that gadolinium would help make the images clearer. If you are told part of the way through your scan that gadolinium will be needed, you should not be concerned that this indicates something serious is wrong. Most often, this is being done to make the images clearer and of a higher quality, so the radiologist can provide your doctor with a more accurate diagnosis of your symptom or condition. If the gadolinium is not given after such a recommendation, another scan may be required later.

Time Domain Analyzer

Time Domain Analyzer is useful for measuring impedance values along a transmission
line and for evaluating a device problem in time or distance. Time
domain display provides a more intuitive and direct look at the device under test characteristics. In addition, it gives more meaningful information concerning
the broadband response of a transmission system than other measuring techniques
by showing the effect of each discontinuity as a function of time or distance. This document
will focus on time domain analysis generated from vector
network analyzers. The intent is to provide engineers with frequency
domain background, an in-depth view of how a time domain display is created
from frequency domain data and how to apply the time domain
display to common problems in RF systems.
Agilent offers other documents that cover in detail the use of time domain displays. See
the bibliography for more details.

The measurement technique of time domain reflectometry was introduced in the
early 1960’s and works on the same principle as radar. A pulse of energy is transmitted
down a cable. When that pulse
reaches the end of the cable, or a fault along the cable, part or all of the pulse energy is
reflected back to the instrument. TDR measurements are made by launching an impulse
or a step into the test device and observing the response in time. Using a step generator
and a broadband oscilloscope, a fast edge is launched into the transmission line. The
incident and reflected voltage waves are monitored by the broadband oscilloscope at a
particular point on the line. By measuring the ratio of the input voltage to the reflected
voltage, the impedance of simple discontinuities can be calculated. The position of the
discontinuity can also be calculated as a function of time by applying the velocity of
propagation along the transmission line. The type of discontinuity can be identified by its response.

While the traditional TDR oscilloscope was useful as a qualitative tool, there were
limitations that affected its accuracy and usefulness; a) TDR output step rise time
– the spatial resolution of the measurement depends upon the step rise time; b) poor
signal-to-noise ratio due to the wideband receiver architecture.
Then, in the 70’s, it was shown that the relationship between the frequency domain and
the time domain could be described using the Fourier Transform. The Fourier Transform
of the network reflection coefficient as a function of frequency is the reflection coefficient
as a function of time; i.e., the distance along a transmission line. It was possible
to measure the response of a DUT in the frequency domain and then mathematically
calculate the inverse Fourier Transform of the data to give the time domain response.
A high performance VNA combined with fast computation power created unique measurement
capabilities. Using error-corrected data measured in the frequency domain, the
response of a network to step and impulse time stimuli can be calculated and displayed
as a function of time. This gives traditional time domain reflectometry capability in reflection
and transmission and adds measurement capability of band-limited networks. By
locating network elements in time and removing their effects from measured data, the
vector network analyzer makes more precise frequency domain measurements possible.
Figure 1 shows how both time domain and frequency domain displays
can be generated by either a time domain reflectometer oscilloscope or a vector
network analyzer. Data captured using either a TDR or VNA can be transformed
into both displays.

T1 and T2 effects

To the right are images of a brain tumor with intrinsically long T1 and T2 values having opposite intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. To understand this “paradox”, you must realize that a pixel’s “brightness” or “darkness” on an MR image is directly related to the magnitude of the detected MR signal. The magnitude of the MR signal after an RF-pulse is in turn, dependent on two factors:

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  1. The size of Mz, the z-component of tissue magnetization (M) before the RF-pulse.
  2. The size of Mxy, the transverse components of M after the RF-pulse (when the signal is recorded).

T1 reflects the length of time it takes for regrowth of Mz back toward its initial maximum value (Mo). Tissues with short T1’s recover more quickly than those with long T1’s. Their Mz values are larger, producing a stronger signal and brighter spot on the MR image.

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T2 reflects the length of time it takes for the MR signal to decay in the transverse plane. A short T2 means that the signal decays very rapidly. So substances with short T2’s have smaller signals and appear darker than substances with longer T2 values.

MiniEDU20 MRI system is Niumag’s original product, first used as an integral part of other products. After nearly 10 years of enhancements, its design and functionality are comprehensive and mature. MiniEDU20 can be used by physics lecturers to demonstrate NMR experiments and imaging professionals to teach courses, so that multiple students gain experience in using MR technology without needing to operate expensive instruments.

Basic parameters:
1.Magnet type: permanent magnet
2.Magnetic field intensity: 0.5±0.08T

3.Probe coil: Ø10mm

4.Weight: 49.8Kg
miniedu-portable-educational-mri-device

Applications

  1. NMR/MRI basic theory (Physics)
  2. MRI system (Electronic information engineering)
  3. NMR/MRI theoretic experiments
  4. MR Imaging technical experiments

Relaxation

In most spectroscopic techniques, how the energy absorbed by the sample is released is not a primary concern. In NMR, where the energy goes, and particularly how fast it “gets there” are of prime importance. The NMR process is an absorption process. Nuclei in the excited state must also be able to “relax” and return to the ground state. The timescale for this relaxation is crucial to the NMR experiment. For example, relaxation of electrons to the ground state in uv-visible spectroscopy is a very fast process, on the order of pico-seconds. In NMR, the excited state of the nucleus can persist for minutes. Because the transition energy between spin levels (discussed earlier) is so small, attaining equilibrium occurs on a much longer timescale. The timescale for relaxation will dictate the how the NMR experiment is executed and consequently, how successful the experiment is.

There are two processes that achieve this relaxation in NMR experiments: longitudinal (spin-lattice) relaxation and transverse (spin-spin) relaxation.

In longitudinal relaxation energy is transferred to the molecular framework, the lattice, and is lost as vibrational or translational energy. The half-life for this process is called the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1). Dissipating the energy of NMR transitions (which are tiny compared to the thermal energy of the sample) into the sample should not be a problem, however T1 values are often long. The problem arises not in where to “send” the excess energy, but the pathway along which the energy is released to the lattice. Contributing factors to this type of relaxation are temperature, solution viscosity, structure, and molecular size.

In transverse relaxation energy is transferred to a neighboring nucleus. The half-life for this process is called the spin-spin relaxation time (T2). This process exchanges the spin of nucleus A with the spin of nucleus B (A mI = -½ ® +½ as B mI = +½ ® -½. There is no net change in spin for this process. Inhomogeneity of the magnetic field or the presence of paramagnetic materials can be a large contributor to the value observed for transverse relaxation.

The peak widths in an NMR spectrum are inversely proportional to the lifetime (due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle) and depend on both T1 and T2. For most organic solutions, T1 and T2 are long enough to result in spectra with sharp lines. However, if magnetic field homogeneity is poor or paramagnetic material (such as iron) is present the NMR signals can be broadened to the extent that the signal is destroyed or unusable.

NMR Crosslink Density Analyzer

Combined with the sample temperature control system, VTMR20-010V-T NMR analyzer can control the environmental temperature to research change in physical properties of samples over a wide range of temperatures and rates of change. It can be used for food, energy, organic materials and other areas of research.

Functions

1. Rapid cross-link density determination of rubbers and other polymers;

2. Relaxation analysis of T2*,T2 and T1;

3. Determination of glass transition temperature;

4. Quantitative analysis of water phase with varying -temperature.

NMR Application Indexes

1. Minimum detection limit: 10 mg of  water;

2. Test range of moisture: 0.88 % – 100 %;

3. The sample temperature range: 35 0C – 150 0C(standard)/ 35 0C – 2000C (advanced), with precision ± 0.3 0C;

4. The correlation coefficient of crosslink density between benchtop NMR method and swelling method > 0.99;

5. Repeatability: RSD < 2%, reliability: RSD < 10 %. RSD: relative standard deviation

Application Direction

Determination of cross-link density of polymers (especially rubbers);

Quality control and assurance in plolymer production;

Quality inspection in polymer aging process;

Study in rubber vulcanization process and optimization of production conditions;

Research on molecular mobility of solids, semi-rigid polymers, gels, emulsions and liquids;

Imaging and determining the moisture in solid matrix;

Detection of viscosity, state and process during the epoxy resin and rubber vulcanizing;

Investigation in adhesion and activity of water of the samples;

Determination of plasticizer or rubber content of the polymers;

Determination of rubber content of the copolymer or blends;

Determination of relative content of copolymers;

Determination of solid content in rubber latex;

Research on critical water and hydration;

Rheological research on viscosity, density and the stability of materials .

Application Examples

1-the-configuration-for-the-same-type-of-equipment-could-vary-in-different-application-fields

Multinuclear and hypersensitive MRM in heterogeneous catalysis 

In many heterogeneous catalytic processes, heat transport is an important factor which, if not properly controlled, can lead to the formation of hot spots in the catalyst bed, degradation of reaction conversion and selectivity, reactor runaway and even explosion. The development of non-invasive thermometry techniques for the studies of operating reactors is necessary to advance our understanding of heat transport processes in the catalyst bed and is essential for the development of efficient and environmentally safe industrial reactors and processes.

NMR analyzer and MRI techniques are known to be able to evaluate local temperatures of liquids. However, for a multiphase gas-liquid-solid reactor the available techniques based on the liquid phase benchtop NMR signal detection are not applicable since the local liquid content in the catalyst pores varies with space and time.

We have demonstrated earlier that the direct 27Al MRI of industrial alumina-supported catalysts (e.g., Pd/Al2O3) is a potential way toward the spatially resolved thermometry of an operating packed bed catalytic reactor. Recently, we were able to implement this approach and to obtain 2D temperature maps of the catalyst directly in the course of an exothermic catalytic reaction. The images obtained clearly demonstrate the temperature changes with the variation of the reactant feed and also the existing temperature gradients within the catalyst at a constant feed.

One of the obstacles in developing novel applications of MRM in porous media is its fairly low sensitivity even if 1H signal detection is used. A number of hyperpolarization techniques are currently being developed that can enhance the NMR signal by 4-5 orders of magnitude even at intermediate (3-7 T) magnetic fields, and even more in low and ultra-low magnetic field applications that are currently gaining popularity. Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is the only hyperpolarization technique of relevance to catalysis as PHIP effects are observed in hydrogenation reactions when parahydrogen is involved.

We have shown that PHIP can be generated not only in homogeneous hydrogenation reactions but also in heterogeneous catalytic processes catalyzed by a broad range of different heterogeneous catalysts. Thus, the development of the novel hypersensitive NMR/MRI techniques for heterogeneous catalysis becomes possible.

Also, this approach can provide hyperpolarized gases and catalyst-free hyperpolarized liquids for a wide range of novel applications of NMR and MRI in, e.g., materials science, chemical engineering and in vivo biomedical research. Applications of this hypersensitive approach to the studies of gas flow in microfluidic chips and of the hydrogenation reaction in a packed bed microreactor will be demonstrated.

This work was supported by the following grants: RAS 5.1.1, RFBR 11-03-00248-a and 11-03-93995-CSIC-a, SB RAS integration grants 9, 67 and 88, NSh-7643.2010.3, FASI 02.740.11.0262 and МК-1284.2010.3.