Small Animal MRI

Atlas of Small Animals MRI is a highly illustrated guide to the common clinical disorders of dogs and cats that are now routinely diagnosed using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This invaluable new resource features a wealth of high-quality CT and MRI images and includes relevant radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic, and gross pathology images, offering a unique approach emphasizing comparative imaging and pathologic correlation.

The book is organized by anatomical region with subsections focusing on specific anatomical sites or disorders—from the head, neck, brain and spine to the thorax, abdomen, and musculoskeletal system. The accompanying text emphasizes important imaging features focusing on what is important to the diagnosis of disease. Where helpful to the imaging diagnosis, information related to disease etiopathology, non-imaging diagnostic procedures, and treatment is also included.

Essential for specialists in training and qualified specialists in the fields of small animal veterinary diagnostic imaging, internal medicine, and surgery. Also of interest to those in general veterinary practice who commonly refer patients for CT and MRI examinations.

Atlas of Small Animal CT & MRI is a highly illustrated diagnostic imaging guide to common clinical disorders of dogs and cats.

Contains over 3,000 high quality CT, MRI and related diagnostic images
Offers a unique approach emphasizing comparative imaging and pathologic correlation
Focuses on important imaging features relevant to imaging diagnosis of disease in dogs and cats
Written by internationally renowned experts in the field


Q & A about NMR and MRI

What is the marginal cost of an MRI, CT, and X-ray scan?
Preferably with all the components of cost (depreciation, power, staff, maintenance, etc) and with a source?

Source: Taiwan’s NHI (National health insurance) payment (in Chinese)
33070B CT without contrast: 3800 points
33071B CT with contrast:4560 points
33072B CT with and without contrast: 5035 points
33084B MRI without contrast: 6500 points
33085B MRI with contrast: 11500 points
32001C Chest X-ray: 200 points
1 points = 0.8~0.9 NTD, 1 NTD = 0.03 USD

It includes imaging and reading. If the film is not read by a bordered radiologist, the NHI will not pay.

I assume that by marginal cost you mean something like the average cost per study, factoring in amortization of the machine, materials, salaries for technical personal AND cost of interpretation by a radialogist (I am not an accountant so I am not sure what the proper term for all of this is). The cost vary depending on the precise type of study done (some studies involve injecting a contrast agent, MRI of the spine take longer than the brain, etc), and the volume of studies done.
The best info I could find was at Healthcare Bluebook. They suggest a “fair price” (in a competitive market I think this would be close to the price you are looking for) is $408 for a CT of the brain, $731 for an MRI of the brain, both non-contrast. The numbers quoted by another respondent (Mr. Kalariya) are probably the “chargemaster” charges for the studies. Such numbers are essentially made up out of thin air by hospitals. Almost nobody pays that much.

How are NMR spectra acquired?
Answering your clarification in the comment, which was “What exactly happens between the time you pulse the sample with a magnetic field to when you have the final spectrum?”

First of all, it’s a radio frequency pulse, the field is held constant. There are usually many pulses in an NMR experiment, especially if you’re after 2D or 3D spectra. In any case, after the last pulse, the spin system is still “ringing” for a little while (a few seconds), emitting exponentially decaying radio frequency signal. It is recorded by RF coils in the probe (same coils that generate the pulses. They are often cryogenically cooled for sensitivity). That signal is digitized and stored as files which you can download from the spectrometer. There are several mathematical operations that can be done to these time domain spectra (multiplying by differently shaped functions, etc), but sooner or later it goes through digital Fourier transform, which produces the frequency-domain spectrum you know.

Atlas of Small Animal CT and MRI

This atlas represents a comprehensive compilation of cross-sectional (computed tomography, CT, and magnetic resonance, MR) images of normal anatomy and a wide range of pathologic conditions in dogs and cats. The book is logically structured into 6 sections (head and neck, brain, spine, thorax, abdomen and musculoskeletal system). A brief introduction and literature review at the beginning of each chapter provides an excellent and concise overview over relevant normal findings, anatomic variations, and pathologic lesions to be covered in the following imaging part. Multiple images are provided for each topic, often including both CT and MRI contrast agent images in various window settings and sequences, multiplanar reconstructions and 3-D volume rendered images of the same animal. Additionally, in many instances endoscopic, intra-operative or gross pathology images are provided along with CT and MR images of a given case, allowing clinical correlation. This is certainly the most comprehensive collection of normal and abnormal CT and MR images in small animal veterinary patients available to date. It does not only include examples of common diseases (e.g., nasal carcinoma or pituitary carcinoma) but also uncommon conditions cross sectional images of which are not easily found in the existing literature (e.g., effects of radiation on the brain or renal secondary parathyroidism). The book is beautifully produced, easy to follow, and the image quality is simply outstanding. Another review mentioned problems with the spine/binding – My copy is flawless, so I did not have the same experience. This atlas is a most valuable resource not only for veterinary radiologists and radiology residents but also for other specialists utilizing cross-sectional imaging (neurologist, internists, surgeons, (radiation) oncologists etc.), for private practitioners with access to CT or Small Animals MRI, and for veterinary students seeking correlation between diagnostic imaging and pathologic findings. I very much enjoyed reading this book, and I would give it my highest recommendations. It is an absolute must-have for anybody interested in cross-sectional imaging in dogs and cats.

This is a must have for anyone using cross-sectional imaging, and definitely for all residents and diplomates using CT/MR. The book is very well organized, to the point, and has an abundance of pertinent information on most major and minor disease processes. This includes a wealth of CT/MR images, common imaging findings, anatomy (including some line drawings), common differentials, some pathophysiology, and even some supplemental images (3D reconstructions, radiographs, ultrasound, gross pathology, endoscopy including virtual colonoscopy). References at the end of the chapters make great supplemental readings for those of you taking boards.
As far as quality goes – the images came out really sharp with excellent contrast and the paper feels very nice and glossy. The binding in my copy isn’t perfect, but that is A ok with me. All I really care about is the quality of the images and information and I am loving this awesome book!

I received the book as a gift after requesting it. This book is well organized into six an anatomical sections and several subsections within each of the main sections. Each subsection includes brief review (narrative and images) of the appearance of normal and abnormal structures and disorders, respectively, within that subsection. CT images (with and without contrast), MR images (multiple sequences), and some gross and 3-D reconstructed images are included. This book is very clinically applicable and is a must have for anyone studying or routinely using cross-sectional imaging in veterinary medicine!