Agriculture, Food & Beverage NMR Analysis

Quality control for consistency of food products from field to fork is of prime concern to manufacturers and consumers alike. Making products that look, smell and taste good ensures consumers come back for more. So, with an ever-growing population demanding more food products than ever before, simple instrumental test methods are required to provide quick and reproducible data from the field to the factory via the shopping cart to the consumer. For example, the measurement of oil and fats are invaluable in the control of many foods, particularly in snack food products such as potato chips. In a similar way, the quality of the simple bar of chocolate may be judged its solid fat content using a rapid measurement which will determine a perfect product while on the farm, oil in seeds is vital to productivity and yield, ultimately dictating the price the farmer is paid for his products.

Quality control for consistency of products at maximum yield produced in the most environmentally friendly yet cost-effective manner is a major driver in today’s agriculture markets.

With an ever-growing population demanding more food products than ever before, simple instrumental test methods are required to provide quick and reproducible data from the farm to the table of the consumer.

Parameters such as the measurement of oil and moisture are invaluable in the control of animal and fish feeds. Similarly, seed quality may also be judged on oil and moisture content with a rapid measurement determining acceptance or rejection and ultimately the price paid by the factory.

Using Benchtop NMR Analyzer  for Food Authenticity Screening

Recent advances in benchtop NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) mean that it is suitable as a fast and easy technique for assessing suspected edible oil contamination/adulteration and meat speciation. The system can be used to discriminate between different oil types and provide quantitative information for mixtures. The NMR spectra of triglycerides contain valuable information indicating what the meat species is.

Q & A about NMR and MRI

What is the marginal cost of an MRI, CT, and X-ray scan?
Preferably with all the components of cost (depreciation, power, staff, maintenance, etc) and with a source?

Source: Taiwan’s NHI (National health insurance) payment (in Chinese)
33070B CT without contrast: 3800 points
33071B CT with contrast:4560 points
33072B CT with and without contrast: 5035 points
33084B MRI without contrast: 6500 points
33085B MRI with contrast: 11500 points
32001C Chest X-ray: 200 points
1 points = 0.8~0.9 NTD, 1 NTD = 0.03 USD

It includes imaging and reading. If the film is not read by a bordered radiologist, the NHI will not pay.

I assume that by marginal cost you mean something like the average cost per study, factoring in amortization of the machine, materials, salaries for technical personal AND cost of interpretation by a radialogist (I am not an accountant so I am not sure what the proper term for all of this is). The cost vary depending on the precise type of study done (some studies involve injecting a contrast agent, MRI of the spine take longer than the brain, etc), and the volume of studies done.
The best info I could find was at Healthcare Bluebook. They suggest a “fair price” (in a competitive market I think this would be close to the price you are looking for) is $408 for a CT of the brain, $731 for an MRI of the brain, both non-contrast. The numbers quoted by another respondent (Mr. Kalariya) are probably the “chargemaster” charges for the studies. Such numbers are essentially made up out of thin air by hospitals. Almost nobody pays that much.

How are NMR spectra acquired?
Answering your clarification in the comment, which was “What exactly happens between the time you pulse the sample with a magnetic field to when you have the final spectrum?”

First of all, it’s a radio frequency pulse, the field is held constant. There are usually many pulses in an NMR experiment, especially if you’re after 2D or 3D spectra. In any case, after the last pulse, the spin system is still “ringing” for a little while (a few seconds), emitting exponentially decaying radio frequency signal. It is recorded by RF coils in the probe (same coils that generate the pulses. They are often cryogenically cooled for sensitivity). That signal is digitized and stored as files which you can download from the spectrometer. There are several mathematical operations that can be done to these time domain spectra (multiplying by differently shaped functions, etc), but sooner or later it goes through digital Fourier transform, which produces the frequency-domain spectrum you know.

How To Collect NMR Spectra for Optimal Performace

In order to perform optimally, it is best if the sample preparation and the NMR system for EDU data acquisition are performed in a manner similar to that used to prepare and collect the reference NMR system for research spectra used in Bayesil’s spectral library. Using different spectral preparation and collection conditions will compromise the performance, particularly the quantification accuracy. Here we describe the recommended methods that Bayesil users should follow when preparing biological samples and collecting NMR spectra of those samples.

All samples should have been either stored frozen or stored at 4 °C prior to use. Cerebrospinal fluid should be spun down to remove particulate matter and its pH checked (or adjusted) to ensure that it is between pH 6.8-7.4. More attention must be paid for the sample preparation of serum or plasma because of the high concentration of proteins in these samples. Proteins in the biofluid sample of interest must be removed by passing it through a pre-rinsed (washed 7X) Amicon Ultra-0.5 3000 MWCO filter at 4 °C using a centrifuge (12,000 g force). Unwanted protein signals are particularly problematic with serum and plasma and ultrafiltration is currently the best method of removing these signals without altering the chemical composition of the biofluid. After the protein filtration step has been completed, the sample may be placed into a NMR tube. If Shegemi tubes are used, 285 μL of sample will be needed. For regular thin walled 5 mm NMR tubes, 570 μL of sample will be needed. With respect to pre-rinsing the Amicon filters, sterile double-distilled water or its equivalent should be used. Rinsing should be done at least seven times to ensure any residual glycerol is removed. Otherwise glycerol concentrations will be erroneously elevated in the biofluid sample.

It is recommended that users check the pH of each sample prior to spectrum collection to ensure the pH is near 7.0. Otherwise the global fitting routine will produce larger errors than reported. The physiologic pH of blood and CSF is between 7.3 and 7.4. Plasma and serum generally have large buffering capacities, thus pH adjustment is rarely problematic. Bayesil is designed to work well with samples having a pH range between 6.8 and 7.5. However, the pH may vary due to sample handling or disease state and adequate optimization of the pH prior to data collection cannot be stressed enough. Larger concentrations of sodium phosphate than 50 mM may be necessary if your sample’s pH is not adequately controlled. Thus, checking your sample’s pH beforehand can alleviate many potential problems.

The necessary volumes and buffer recipes required for sample preparation are shown below in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.

NMR Spectroscopy Explained: Simplified Theory, Applications and Examples for Organic Chemistry and Structural Biology

This book along with “Structure Determination of Organic Compounds” by Pretsch, Buhlmann, and Affolter and maybe “200 and More NMR experiments” by Berger and Braun are currently the only NMR books worth owning. Skip the rest.

I’ve been working with NMR analyzer for over 11 years and over the years have acquired numerous books on the subject. This book is hands down the best on the subject. The author clearly explains everything, where other books throw up a graph/spectrum/equation and expect you to figure it out magically at times. Areas I’ve been confused on for years suddenly all make sense.

Initially I wanted to write a review for this book after I finish the whole book. However, since the publication of this book, I have noticed that nobody has ever written a review. I have only finished approximately 400 pages but I want to let people to know that this is clearest exposition on modern nmr spectroscopy I have ever come across. I have read a number of nmr books. These include the following

J.D. Roberts “ABC of FT NMR”
T. Claridge “High Resolution NMR spectroscopy in organic chemistry”
J. Sanders ” Modern NMR spectroscopy”
H. Friebolin “Basic One- and Two-Dimenionsal NMR”

None of the above is as good as this book. The one that comes close to this is Friebolin’s book. However, it is not as detail and does not cover topics such as operator formalism and density matrix. This book also covers the basic theoretical principles and presented in a very lucid way. I enjoy reading this book tremendously.

Dec 14, 2009. It has been almost 2 years since I wrote the initial review. Since then, I have the opportunity to read the whole book a second ti

I’ve been working with NMR for over 11 years and over the years have acquired numerous books on the subject. This book is hands down the best on the subject. The author clearly explains everything, where other books throw up a graph/spectrum/equation and expect you to figure it out magically at times. Areas I’ve been confused on for years suddenly all make sense.

This book along with “Structure Determination of Organic Compounds” by Pretsch, Buhlmann, and Affolter and maybe “200 and More NMR experiments” by Berger and Braun are currently the only NMR books worth owning. Skip the rest.

Initially I wanted to write a review for this book after I finish the whole book. However, since the publication of this book, I have noticed that nobody has ever written a review. I have only finished approximately 400 pages but I want to let people to know that this is clearest exposition on modern nmr spectroscopy I have ever come across. I have read a number of nmr books. These include the following

J.D. Roberts “ABC of FT NMR”
T. Claridge “High Resolution NMR spectroscopy in organic chemistry”
J. Sanders ” Modern NMR spectroscopy”
H. Friebolin “Basic One- and Two-Dimenionsal NMR”

None of the above is as good as this book. The one that comes close to this is Friebolin’s book. However, it is not as detail and does not cover topics such as operator formalism and density matrix. This book also covers the basic theoretical principles and presented in a very lucid way. I enjoy reading this book tremendously.

Dec 14, 2009. It has been almost 2 years since I wrote the initial review. Since then, I have the opportunity to read the whole book a second time. My opinion of this book remains the same. If you really want to understand NMR, you cannot go wrong with this book.

I’ve always found NMR to be extremely difficult but when I got this book, it really helped me to understand how to read and analyze NMR spectra. I also had the great honor of having the author of this book as my professor recently and the guy really knows his stuff and is great at conveying his knowledge. So if you never understood NMR or don’t really understand it that much, or just want a great book about NMR, this is the book for you and you can trust in the fact that the author knows his stuff. I know this book is costly, but trust me you won’t regret it at all!

me. My opinion of this book remains the same. If you really want to understand NMR, you cannot go wrong with this book.

I’ve always found NMR to be extremely difficult but when I got this book, it really helped me to understand how to read and analyze NMR spectra. I also had the great honor of having the author of this book as my professor recently and the guy really knows his stuff and is great at conveying his knowledge. So if you never understood NMR or don’t really understand it that much, or just want a great book about spin finish NMR analyzer, this is the book for you and you can trust in the fact that the author knows his stuff. I know this book is costly, but trust me you won’t regret it at all!